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New Quantity Available: 1. Bookshub Karol Bagh, India. Cancer of the Skin Rigel, Darrell S. Published by Saunders New Quantity Available: Cockerell Robert Friedman Merrick I. Ross June K. Robinson Darrell S. Published by Elsevier. New Quantity Available: 2. Published by W B Saunders Co New Hardcover Quantity Available: 2.
Revaluation Books Exeter, United Kingdom. Friedman Robert Ross Merrick I. Robinson June K. Rigel Darrell S. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Mol Clin Oncol. Published online Mar 7. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Jul 29; Accepted Oct This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License , which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Malignant myoepithelioma of the breast is an extremely rare tumor composed entirely or almost entirely of malignant spindle cells with myoepithelial differentiation. Keywords: malignant myoepithelioma, myoepithelial carcinoma, breast carcinoma, chemotherapy, local recurrence, immunohistochemistry. Introduction Myoepithelial cells display characteristics of epithelial as well as smooth muscle cells, and are usually located in the breast, throughout the mammary duct system, as an interrupted layer of stellate cells between the continuous luminal epithelial cell layer and the basement membrane 1 , 2.
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Histopathology The microscopic examination revealed an invasive proliferation Fig. Figure 4. Discussion Myoepithelial carcinomas of the breast are extremely rare and represent a challenge in terms of diagnosis and treatment 1 , 9 , Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Mr.
References 1. Myoepithelial carcinoma: A rare neoplasm of the breast. Breast Care Basel ; 5 — Ahmed A. The myoepithelium in human breast carcinoma. J Pathol. Myoepithelial carcinoma of the breast treated with surgery and chemotherapy. Case Rep Oncol Med. Malignant myoepithelioma myoepithelial carcinoma of the breast: A detailed cytokeratin study.
J Clin Pathol. Malignant myoepithelioma of the breast: A case report and review of literature. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. Tavassoli FA. Pathology of the Breast. Appleton and Lange; Stamford, CT: Rosen's Breast Pathology. Malignant myoepithelioma of the breast: Case report with review of literature. Malaysian J Pathol.
Malignant myoepithelial breast carcinoma: Diagnosis and therapeutic difficulties. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. Myoepithelioma myoepithelial carcinoma of the breast: Case reports. Austral-Asian Journal of Cancer. An epithelial and spindle cell breast tumour of myoepithelial origin.
An immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study. Infiltrating myoepithelial carcinoma of the breast, a case report and cytologic-histologic correlation.
Diagnostic Pathology. Dabbs DJ.
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Breast Pathology. Elsevier Saunders; Philadelphia, PA: Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry: Theranostic and Genomic Application. Saunders Elsevier; Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; Breast myoepithelioma. Report of a case. Ann Pathol. Breast tumor with myoepithelial cells. A cystoscope is a narrow tube that contains a camera and lighting system. Cystoscopy usually involves a local anesthetic and takes place in a physician's office. If the person needs a general anesthetic, the procedure will instead take place in the hospital.
The following imaging tests can help confirm a diagnosis and reveal if the cancer has spread within the body:. During a cystoscopy, a surgeon can retrieve samples for a bladder biopsy. If cancer is present, a biopsy can help a doctor establish its invasiveness. A doctor can also use a thin, hollow needle to collect a biopsy, often using a CT scan or ultrasound as guidance. Staging describes how far the cancer has spread and determines which treatment is the most suitable option.
Stage 0: Cancer cells occur on the outer surface of the inner lining of the bladder. At this stage, bladder cancer would be a noninvasive papillary carcinoma that has developed toward the hollow part of the bladder or an invasive papilloma that has not moved beyond the inner lining of the womb. Stage I: Cancer occurs within the inner lining of the bladder but has not spread to the lamina propria or muscular wall. It has only reached the connective tissue underneath the bladder lining.
Stage II: Cancer has entered the muscular wall but remains in the bladder only.
It has not reached the fatty layer that surrounds the bladder. Stage III: Cancer has spread through the wall to the tissue surrounding the bladder, including other organs, such as the prostate, uterus, or vagina.