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Login to add to list. Be the first to add this to a list. Comments and reviews What are comments? Add a comment. Charles Sturt University. The idea for this workshop came from A. Desaules when he was installing the Swiss National Soil Monitoring Network NABO as his doubts about the philosophy of soil monitoring prevailing at that time increased. This philosophy essentially equated soil mo- nitoring with repetitive surveys of soil pollutant concentrations at pennanent observation sites.
He sought others interested in discussing alternatives, and he found a ready partner in the ETH-Institute for Terrestrial Ecology. Inadequate or unequal access to healthy and productive natural resources can trigger instability and insecurity as communities compete for scarce water, food, grazing area, energy and other natural resources.
By rehabilitating and restoring degraded lands, land-based jobs such as agro-forestry, ecotourism, etc. This can be further enhanced through strengthening land registration and rights for at risk and vulnerable populations. Strong property rights especially for land ownership encourage long term investments in land improvement and sustainable land use practices Wikie et al. Climate change is one of the leading causes of loss of biodiversity and ecosystem balance and function.
Biodiversity loss can trigger and prolong land degradation, which in turn is a major contributor to climate change and variability. By the year , it is estimated that global crop production would have reduced by at least 10 per cent globally; and up to 50 per cent in some regions of the world, primarily through land degradation and climate change factors.
Rehabilitation and reclamation of degraded lands would reduce average carbon emissions and help sequester approximately Gt of CO2 annually. LD was responsible for about 3. This figure has gone higher since.
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Recent studies show that managing soil carbon by reversing land degradation is the most promising cost-effective high-impact means towards climate change mitigation and adaptation, increased food security and biodiversity conservation Toensmeier, The benefits of land restoration are on average 10 times higher than the total costs of in action SEI, ; Nkonya et al. The basic process of land degradation management involves three steps: assessment, monitoring and implementation of appropriate mitigation measures.
This is a basic measure of vegetation condition and health indicating the quality, quantity and development of vegetation in a given area. The index employs the differential illumination and reflectance of vegetation features in an area. The difference is derived from visible and near infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. NDVI is calculated using the formula below:. The higher the value the better the vegetation condition and health. Lower values indicate degraded or non-existent vegetation.
- Soil Quality Monitoring Programs: A Literature Review - Appendix.
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Built-up or bare areas would exhibit very low NDVI values, for instance. In image b below, the red shade represents low NDVI values and corresponds to the built-up areas in image a. Image: Parmehr, E. Estimation of urban tree canopy cover using random point sampling and remote sensing methods.
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This index however has its limitations. Climate fluctuations, such as sunshine or rainfall, or disturbances, such as fires, or changes in land use can cause vegetation cover and type to change and thus produce a false alarm when calculating NDVI values for land degradation assessment.
To enhance the validity of the NDVI indications, these false alarms have to be considered when doing the measurement Bai et al. Image: Mbatha, N.
Climate, 6 4 , Change detection uses images taken at different time periods - usually Date 1 taken before the assessment period and Date 2 taken after the assessment period. These images are then classified using different change detection methods based on factors such as the required spatial resolution , which basically dictates the amount of detail to be shown on the end product. Different features reflect electromagnetic energy in different signatures and thus can be identified and extracted using different feature extraction methods and software. Indicator monitoring can be done by image interpretation experts through visual image reading of satellite images or aerial photographs; or by computer-assisted methods, such as conducting surface reflectance calculations for both soil and vegetation, among other surface features.
Often, a combination of these methods is applied. Some of the indicators used for land degradation monitoring include, but are not limited to:.
Floods and landslides can indicate locations where degradation is likely to occur firstly due to the indiscriminate sweeping action of the two forces, washing away vegetation and fertile top soils. Alternatively, landslides and flood events can indicate locations where land degradation has already occurred and thus the land has its capacity to buffer against such disasters. Land cover data provides fundamental baseline information for land degradation assessments and monitoring. Changes in land cover may serve to indicate where degradation is likely to occur given certain conditions.
Hu et al. Crop production depends on fertile soils, rainfall among other factors. Poor crop yield may serve to indicate poor state of the soils largely due to soil degradation in the given area. Brema et al. Average reduction in biomass and NPP indicate degradation as they result in a reduction in the capacity of land to sustain and recover from disturbances. Such land is often in a degraded state. Dwivedi, ; Hermans-Neumann, et al. Soil erosion is a prerequisite condition for most land degradation processes and also a result of the land degradation process.
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Dwivedi, ; Alatorre et al. Soil water stress is a common feature of degraded land. The amount of moisture present in soil indicate suitability of land for different uses and has direct influence on food security, biomass production and ecosystem functioning. Dwivedi, ; Gao et al. Loss of carbon soil as a result of erosion can also cause vegetation cover depletion which would then trigger biodiversity loss.
Negative trends in biodiversity may serve as proxy for degradation. Some of the limitations of using space based information for land degradation assessment and monitoring include:.