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Looking for other ways to read this? No thanks. Suggested Citation: "Conclusion. Page 26 Share Cite. If we fol- low closely such tendencies while we are reorganizing biology into applied science, we are likely to interpret the word "ap- plied" as limited to the material and espe- cially the commercial affairs of life, and then we shall leave no place for the intellec- tual and esthetic values of biological study. I have thus at some length advocated a larger conception of biology as applied sci- ence that functions in our daily life in that it definitely concerns intellectual welfare.
This is why I believe in education that pres- ent applied biology in the largest sense of the word "applied," namely, biology that sets forth in bold relief the great facts and leading ideas which touch human life in its combined economic, industrial, hy- gienic, intellectual and esthetic outlook. Applied biology, then, should be under- stood in the larger sense as meaning a selec- tion from the vast field of biological learn- ing of those facts and ideas which are likely to mean most in the life of the average edu- cated man and woman.
Thus, zoology may through education come to make the great- est possible contribution to human welfare. There has long been a feeling, even among scientific men themselves, that the philosophical applications of biological generalizations are more or less interesting for the purposes of mental gymnastics ; but that they have no important bearing on the practical relations of science to human life.
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How often have we heard the theory of evolution referred to as a strictly pure sci- ence generalization without possible appli- cation to practical affairs. In all this we seem to have been decidedly in error, for we have overlooked the fact that a philo- sophical application of a pure-science theory may come to be a guiding force in the material affairs to which science is di- rectly applied. Such is the ease in the re- lation of certain phases of evolutionary philosophy to the Great War.
ursenakeabka.gq A striking illustration of the profound bearing of philosophical biology, particu- larly zoology, on human welfare is found in the German justification of the present world struggle which seems to be opening the way to overwhelming revolutions of our economic, social, political, ethical and even religious systems. It is clear to many American men of science that the German philosophy of the superior state or nation and the superior race or people and the superior qualities of Kultur of the people as a group is at bottom an evolutionary philosophy based on the German zoologist's conception of the Allmacht or all-suffi- ciency of the Darwinian theory of survival of 'the fittest in the universal struggle for existence among living things.
This biolog- ical principle in the extreme interpretation of Neo-Darwinism has been widely adopted by influential German philosophers. Of course the German doctrine of supe- riority is not all an application of philo- sophical biology, for there is obviously an admixture of the peculiar religious state of mind characteristic of many German writ- ers in the universities and in the govern- ment.
As proof of this we may call to mind the long-standing dual alliance between the Kaiser and his Gott; and judging from many fervently religious phrases in imper- ial proclamations relating to "glorious" victories in Belgium and Serbia, the mutual understanding between Wilhelm II. The members of the Kaiser's fam- ily may sincerely believe, because they have been educated to believe, in their divine rights and affiliations ; but it is impossible that traditional religion has played more than a minor part in developing the clearly evolutionary philosophy of German supe- riority that has spread centrifugally from the universities, especially through the in- fluence of many writers who were not liable to classification as religiously inclined.
Contributions of Biology to Human Welfare
Perhaps the religion of the people of the masses has led them to accept as a religious idea the doctrine of superiority made by German evolutionary thinkers and spread broadcast by the means of an educational system that with marvelous skill was planned to promulgate and ultimately to put into world-wide practise the clearly evolutionary doctrine of German superior- ity over the rest of mankind.
In biological philosophy intellectual Ger- many seems to find good in this war, and indeed in all wars, as a means of express- ing force or might of the state, which in the German national philosophy is always right because the fittest win in the struggle. Of course it matters not, so far as we are inquiring into the possible influence of bio- logical philosophy on human welfare, that numerous German biologists and philoso- phers have accepted an evolution factor whose Allmacht has long been denied by the great majority of biologists outside of Germany.
For our present purposes the fact is that, whether right or wrong, a bio- logical theory has been made to support a national state of mind which is now threat- ening the very foundations of human wel- fare.
Of course it is beside the point, but to a biologist an interesting question, whether Neo-Darwinism has been widely ac- cepted by the intellectuals of Germany be- cause of scientific facts in its favor or be- cause it fitted in with a previously accepted doctrine of right determined by might. Be that as it may, the one conclusion I wish to draw from the German philosophy of superiority is that we should find an im- portant lesson in the fact that a theory largely zoological in its origin and in its human applications has been brought into conflict with human welfare as we Ameri- cans see it with the larger vision.
I have arrived now at my main thesis that only through organized education can the physical and intellectual values of zool- ogy be made to contribute to human wel- fare in the largest sense. The fact that the German superior state of mind to which we object was developed by national education, and education thus worked against human welfare, is obviously no argument against education, but only against a phase of edu- cation limited to the purposes of those in power. It is evident that the appli- cation of the laws of heredity or genetics to the breeding of more useful animals is simply another aspect of economic zoology ; and one whose total financial value is bound to continue to be greater than that of all other phases of practical zoology combined.
July 5, ] SCIENCE On the other hand, the human problem of applied heredity or eugenics is far from being such a simple business problem be- cause the desired results can not be evalu- ated on a purely economic basis.