Schaefer, and John D. Schaefer, Antonio R. Panizzi, and David D.
Schaefer Triatominae Reduviidae , Eloi S. Garcia, Patricia de Azambuja, and Joao C. Lattin Damsel Bugs Nabidae S.
The 37, described species of this suborder including many pests, disease transmitters, and nuisances exist worldwide, inflicting damage on crops, forests, orchards, and human life. Inspired by the widespread economic impact of this activity, Heteroptera of Economic Importance presents the most thorough, detailed account of true bugs to date, from the bloodsucking bed bug to the dreaded assassin bug. It is the definitive source for biological information not only on true bugs of economic importance, but on the general biology of the major families of Heteroptera as well.
Heteroptera of Economic Importance integrates the best of insect-focused and crop-oriented references, synthesizing the biology, behavior, and ecology of the true bugs. Each entry includes a detailed life history, helping you to evaluate the impact of harmful and useful Heteroptera. The thorough, comprehensive bibliographies support further research.
Separate indices to insects and plants let you adapt the book to your use. It covers the physiology of plant damage and predation by this cosmopolitan group. This coverage, along with information on control measures and natural enemies, helps you evaluate and compare the best methods of management.
Heteroptera can be serious crop pests, harmful to humans, or can be valuable as biological control agents. This work discusses them individually, with expert presentation of the biology, distribution, damage, and control of each economically significant insect. As a resource that lets you easily access information and research on related bugs globally, Heteroptera of Economic Importance lends itself to sharing of ideas and information across geographical boundaries which will inevitably yield more research, new ideas, and better control.
Subject Hemiptera. Insect pests. They detect the ripples of other insects on the water and run quickly to capture and kill the prey. Water scorpions are true bugs in the Family Nepidae that have long breathing tubes on their rear ends, which enables them to breathe air while still under water. They can survive in warm ponds or polluted waters low in oxygen. Blatchley, W. Nature Publishing Co. Froeschner, R. ACydnidae of the Western Hemipshere. Proceedings of the United States National Museum , Henry, T.
Brill, Leiden. Miller, N. The Biology of the Heteroptera. Leonard Hill, London. Polhemus, J. Shore Bugs Heteroptera Hemiptera; Saldidae. The Different Drummer, Englewood, Colorado. Slater, J. Distinct lineages of mitochondrial DNA can be caused by various effects. These include population separation by phylogeographic events  —  , incomplete lineage sorting  —  , the presence of maternally inherited endosymbionts e.metanili.cf
True Bugs of the World (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Classification and Natural History.
Wolbachia  ,  , and simply the existence of cryptic species  ,  , . However, as consequence of the short length of the three analyzed sequences bp , no BINs have been assigned to this sequences. Based on the given data we are unable to clarify the reasons of the observed nucleotide distances and distinct lineages in most cases.
Certainly, additional studies have to be performed for clarification. However, these are normally not given for a barcode library which relies on a correct identification of the analyzed specimens. An exceptionally high nucleotide distance was found within Aneurus avenius Aradidae , separating two monophyletic lineages with Here, our morphological studies clearly exclude the presence of its sibling species in Central Europe, Aneurus laevis Fabricius, , as well as other closely related species e. Iralunelus gallicus Stys, within the analyzed specimens.
Thus, the probability of the presence of a cryptic species is high. Consequently, the existence of cryptic species in these genera is also likely. Our molecular data also gave evidence for the putative existence of a cryptic species within Orius niger Wolff, Fig. This predatory species is widely common and can be discriminated clearly from other Orius species by various morphological characteristics, e. Nevertheless, our data revealed two distinct lineages with a MPD of 8. Interestingly, a recent study using the nuclear internal transcribed spacer-1 ITS-1 for species identification found no evidence of distinct lineages or the existence of a cryptic species .
This species belongs to the subgenus Brachystira which is morphologically clearly separated not only from the subgenus Stenodema  ,  , but also from its sibling species in Central Europe, Stenodema trispinosa Reuter, by the number and form of the spines on their metafemora . This is also true for Stenodema pilosa Jakovlev, which is found in Central Asia. A taxonomically difficult taxon is the genus Atractotomus Fieber,  , with six known species from Central Europe . In the case of Plesiodema pinetella Miridae , no other species of this genus are known for Central Europe .
True Bugs of the World (Hemiptera:Heteroptera): Classification and Natural History - marsynchhyspoispit.cf
Nevertheless, the observed high nucleotide variability within Plesiodema pinetella is somewhat surprising. Of course, for all these species more individuals from different localities have to be checked to clarify their taxonomic status using both morphological and molecular, in particular nuclear, data. Our study represents the first step in building-up a comprehensive DNA barcode library for true bugs in Central Europe.
Furthermore, our data clearly demonstrate the usefulness of DNA barcoding for heteropteran species identification for most of the analyzed species.
In spite of the fact that taxonomic research of the Heteroptera in Germany has a long history and tradition of more than years, the species status of various taxa is still subject to discussion. This regards not only to the specious and taxonomically difficult Miridae, but surprisingly also much more comprehensively processed species among the Pentatomomorpha.
Our study revealed several gaps between morphology and barcoding-based groupings across Heteroptera species cluster. Our DNA barcode library thus opens up a way towards a desired more intensive collaboration between morphological and molecular Heteroptera taxonomists. This will be crucial for resolving the still existing uncertainties in Heteroptera taxonomy. Number of analyzed specimens of true bugs sampled in Germany per Bundesland.
Sample IDs, accession numbers, species names and sample localities of all analyzed specimens. Non-German specimens are highlighted in light gray. Frequency histogram of barcode sequence length including all analyzed sequences. The numbers right of the graph indicate the number of sequences per family.
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A total of sequences were analysed. Barcode distances of the analyzed Heteroptera.
The distribution of sequence divergence within species and within genera based on the given classification. Matrix plots of the ABGD results The image plots show species names on the y- and the intraspecific divergence prior on the x-axis. For each plot, the relative gap width X is constant minimum and maximum X values are shown.
The image plots were produced automatically by discriminating different cases. Possible cases are i all sequences of one species are found in one single group red , or ii sequences that belong to one species are found in at least two groups blue. Complete Neighbour joining topology of all analyzed specimens of the Heteroptera based on Kimura 2-parameter distances.
We are grateful to the team of Prof. We are grateful to R. Niedringhaus, F. Schmolke, H. Simon and H. Winkelmann for providing specimens of various species and A. Gruppe and J. Analyzed the data: MR FD. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field.